Tag Archives: Skincare

What If There Were Only Happily Ever Afters?

Life changes. redefine_girl_grey_hair_derm_hero

And skin changes.

But WHAT IF you could control your skin’s destiny?  You can.  You control 80% of your skin’s future (only 20% is genetic).  And that’s great news! The choices you make today will affect the way you look and feel tomorrow, next year and well into the future.

WHAT IF you could always be a few steps ahead, anticipating your skin’s biological needs?  You can.  With the right care, your skin can visibly improve with age so you can look even better tomorrow than you do today.

WHAT IF you had two world-renowned doctors, a bio-scientist, a private consultant (everyone should) and an entire regimen devoted to your skin’s every whim 24/7?

You do.  With 30 years of combined research and experience, Dr. Katie Rodan and Dr. Kathy Fields developed their philosophy of Multi-Med® Therapy. This regimen-based approach treats specific skin concerns by combining the most effective ingredients within an optimized formulation, applied in the right order. Stick to the Regimen that’s right for your skin and you, too, can experience transformative results.

WHAT IF you felt good about your neck?

A steady diet of intelligent skincare is the foundation of skin that looks young and healthy. The Rodan and Fields REDEFINE Regimen is a comprehensive skincare solution that layers cosmetic ingredients and potent peptide technology. This formula helps to defend against and reduce the visible signs of aging for noticeably firmer, smoother, flawless-looking skin.

 WHAT IF having flawless skin wasn’t an accident?

REVERSE Regimen is an effective, full-face solution that tackles dullness and uneven skin tone. REVERSE provides a long-term solution for a radiant, more even complexion. It exfoliates dulling dead skin, helps even and brighten discolored skin, reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and protects against further UV damage.

 WHAT IF you could break the vicious acne cycle?

UNBLEMISH Regimen was created as a continuous solution that addresses the acne cycle—clogged pores, trapped oil, bacterial attacks and inflammation. This daily, full-face system combines cosmetic and active over-the-counter ingredients that unclog pores to eliminate most acne blemishes before they are visible on the skin’s surface.

WHAT IF your skin wasn’t so sensitive?

SOOTHE Regimen combines clinically tested active over-the-counter ingredients with our exclusive, patent-pending RFp3 peptide technology to shield against the environmental aggressors associated with dry, chapped, sensitive skin. So effective, the SOOTHE Regimen can decrease visible redness, peeling and dryness. The result? A healthy-looking, even-toned complexion every day.

 WHAT IF THERE WERE ONLY EVER HAPPILY AFTERS?

authored by Derm RF on

Quick Tips for Flawless-Looking Fall Skin

fall-redefineAs the seasons change, so do our skincare needs. Hot, humid months turn crisp and cool, exposing skin to a variety of environmental stressors. Stay ahead of the seasonal skincare curve with easy tips and effective products that keep your complexion looking flawless all year long.

  • Swap facial soaps for hydrating cleansers. Wind and cooler temperatures can dry out skin and cause redness or sensitivity, so switch up your cleanser game and keep clean with gentle products. Start by removing your makeup, then use SOOTHE Gentle Cream Wash to combat dry, chapped, cracked skin.
  • Remember the importance of exfoliation. Exfoliation is a necessary step for healthy skin, even in dry months. A gentle exfoliant helps remove dead skin cells and clears the way for skincare treatments. Plus, it helps refine and soften the skin’s surface—and silky skin is always in style.
  • Keep your smacker supple. Your lips deserve just as much attention as your complexion. Give them the ultimate moisturizing treat with REDEFINE Lip Renewing Serum. Each capsule helps restore and maintain a fuller, younger-looking pout. All the better to be smooched over a pumpkin spice latte.
  • Hydration is your friend. Moisture, moisture, moisture (paging Jan Brady). As temps start to dip, help your skin out and amp up the hydration. Avoid tight, flaky skin by choosing thicker creams and lotions during the day, and don’t forget overnight treatments.
  • Don’t skip the SPF. Just because you’re accessorizing with scarves instead of sunglasses doesn’t mean harsh UVA and UVB rays aren’t coming your way. Before you head out the door, continue to slather your skin with a high quality sunscreen like ESSENTIALS Broad Spectrum SPF 30 Body Sunscreen.

Follow the tips above and keep your complexion glowing no matter what weather you find yourself in.

SHARE these autumn skin-saving tips with friends and family who live in colder climates.


Clean the Slate Post Summer

With summer days behind you, it’s time to see how your skin has slatefared after long, sunny afternoons of soccer games, poolside fun, family picnics, and beach getaways. Even with your daily dose of sunscreen, your complexion may be looking less than lustrous right about now. Before you send dull skin on its way, consider what’s going on above and below the surface.

We often pay more attention to evidence of the sun’s scorching UVB rays (hello sunburn), but it’s the aging UVA rays that can do far more insidious damage to the texture, quality and tone of our skin. For example, every time unprotected skin is exposed to UVA rays, skin cells in that area produce more melanin (or pigment), resulting in dark spots and a drab, uneven complexion.

Since evidence of sun damage is cumulative, it often shows up more dramatically in our twenties and thirties. Even if you feel like you’ve had that sprinkling of spots on your nose, cheeks or forehead forever, think again. No one is born with freckles. While there is a genetic tendency to develop dark areas or uneven pigmentation, sun exposure is a critical factor in bringing out freckles and it greatly accelerates visible signs of aging.

Now’s your chance to perk up post-summer skin. Just remember that sun exposure doesn’t just appear (or disappear) overnight, so be patient. Make sure your daily skincare routine includes exfoliation (to remove dead dulling skin), and look for ingredients like Vitamin C to help even out skin tone. REVERSE Brightening Regimen is an effective way to clean the slate, evening and brightening tone while reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles—so you can look forward to younger-looking skin this fall.

Share this skin wisdom now to brighten someone’s day. Plus, check back all month long for more expert advice and one woman’s journey to healthy-looking skin for her wedding day.

 

Sincerely,

Your Derm RF Support Team

Source: http://www.dermrf.com/2016/09/clean-the-slate-post-summer/

The Science Behind Skincare

veljkovic

As the science behind skincare formulation evolves, we are finding new and innovative ways to create products to treat a multitude of skin conditions. However, even with innovation, there are basic tenets of cosmetic chemistry that must be followed to produce effective products. Unfortunately, there are skincare companies today that make unsubstantiated claims about products that are unstable and ineffective. Trusting the science behind the efficacy of certain time-tested raw materials in addition to exploring new and exciting offerings is an important first step; having a solid understanding of what other categories of ingredients are necessary to create an excellent formulation is paramount. In this article, we will explore a number of categories of commonly used cosmetic ingredients, as well as the components necessary to create outstanding skincare formulations.

Formulations as a whole

One common misconception regarding topical skincare products is that the results come from one key ingredient. In actuality, the formulation as a whole leads to a product’s ability to deliver its purported benefits. Cosmetic products consist of a range of components:

  • Key ingredients determine a product’s greatest topical benefit
  • Skin conditioning agents improve the skin’s surface and provide a soft, smooth appearance
  • Functional ingredients create the end product (cream, serum, lotion, gel) and act as a vehicle, or carrier, for the key ingredients
  • Multifunctional ingredients provide some topical benefits and also assist the vehicle.

Each of these components is essential to a product’s function and benefit. Product performance depends on the key ingredients’ biocompatibility, the use of appropriate product vehicles and delivery systems, and the stability of all of the ingredients within a formulation. Table 1 depicts all categories, as well as examples of ingredients for each.

Trust the science

It can be tempting for consumers to choose a skincare product based solely on the new, exciting ingredients it offers and the promises the manufacturer makes; however, scientific data supporting the efficacy of the key ingredients is one of the most important considerations when choosing topical products. The chemist must vet ingredients prior to their inclusion in a formulation and the clinician should also ask the companies from which they buy their products for this science. Although, newer ingredients may seem intriguing to us all, patients ultimately need products that work. Many of the most effective cosmetic ingredients are time-tested over decades and typically have significant research backing their benefits.

Retinoids, for instance, include all derivatives of the vitamin A family, such as retinoic acid, retinaldehyde and retinol. Although retinoic acid is the form of vitamin A that interacts with the retinoic acid receptors (RAR) in the skin, it can be topically sensitising for some patients. Fortunately, retinaldehyde and retinol are successfully converted into retinoic acid within the skin. This conversion makes it possible to achieve the results of retinoic acid without inflammation1. Studies have found that retinoids stimulate the production of collagen, hyaluronic acid, and elastin. They are also an excellent choice for treating hyperpigmentation, as they help to inhibit the process of melanogenesis at multiple points. Retinoids also encourage cell turnover, bringing youthful, evenly pigmented cells to the skin’s surface2. Acne sufferers benefit from retinoids’ ability to prevent follicular impaction as well.

The only bioavailable form of vitamin C for the skin is L-ascorbic acid. Esters of vitamin C, such as ascorbyl palmitate, do offer antioxidant benefits, yet they do not provide the collagen-stimulating, anti-ageing benefits of L-ascorbic acid. The additional antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and ultraviolet (UV) protective benefits provided by L-ascorbic acid make it an excellent choice for virtually all skin types and conditions3.

Peptides — the key building blocks of nearly all living tissue — encompass a large category of topical ingredients; however, very few have been legitimised in scientific studies. The topical use of peptides is still relatively new to the industry and, while many are being marketed, the most substantiated agents are used in the treatment of ageing skin. Neurotransmitter-affecting peptides, carrier peptides and signal peptides, work in different ways to improve the integrity of the skin:

  • Neurotransmitter-affecting peptides include acetyl hexapeptide-8, a chain of six amino acids that inhibits neurotransmitter release. In vivo studies found that twice-daily application of acetyl hexapeptide-8 for 30 days resulted in a 30% decrease in the depth of dynamic wrinkles4
  • Carrier peptides include copper peptides that increase the uptake of copper by cells when paired with a tripeptide (glycyl-I-histidyl-l-lysine). Copper is used owing to its involvement in collagen deposition through the activation of lysyl oxidase. Research suggests that the copper peptide increases collagen, glycosaminoglycan and adhesive protein production5
  • Signal peptides are used to initiate specific responses within the skin. A number of age control signal peptides are currently available, yet only a few are backed by legitimate studies:
  • Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 refers to lysine-therine-therine-lysine-serine paired with palmitic acid. In vitro studies show a stimulation of types I and III collagen, as well as enhanced production of fibronectin6
  • Palmitoyl oligopeptide is a combination of valine-glycine-valine-alanine-proline-glycine and palmitic acid. Studies suggest that this long-chain peptide stimulates the production of multiple dermal fibroblasts7. Palmitoyl oligopeptide can be used alone or in conjunction with other peptides.

Although the body has its own endogenous free radical-quenching mechanisms, daily application of topical antioxidants provides significantly heightened protection against matrix breakdown and the visible signs of facial ageing8,9. Antioxidants function in three ways: primary antioxidants or electron donors; secondary antioxidants, which chelate metal ions; and co-antioxidants, which facilitate other antioxidants. Many offer multiple protective benefits, such as preventing and reversing free radical damage10. Many antioxidants offer more than one free radical quenching benefit. All skin types benefit from antioxidants, as they are an important line of defence against UV induced cellular damage, photoageing and the development of certain cancers11.

Stem cell extracts

Analysis table

Scientific research supports the use of certain plant stem cell extracts, but further research may be needed to support the efficacy of others. At this time, much of the research focuses on the photoprotective properties of dietary botanicals, citing the potential of topical products that use plant extracts with the same characteristics. Keeping abreast of plant-derived stem cell research as it evolves is essential for making optimal treatment choices as plant stem cell technology is more frequently incorporated into anti-ageing skin care.

Before considering the addition of plant stem cells into cosmeceuticals, it is critical to understand the role of stem cells in the skin. The majority of skin stem cells reside in the basal layer of the epidermis. Their primary function is to replenish the skin as it undergoes normal homeostasis and wound repair12.

Like all stem cells, those in the epidermis are undifferentiated, capable of dividing themselves for extended periods of time and differentiating into multiple lineages based on their tissue origin13. When a stem cell divides, the daughter cells have the potential to either remain a stem cell, like the parent cell, or they can differentiate into cells with a more specialised function, known as progenitor cells.

In recent years, researchers have identified naturally occurring botanicals with substantial antioxidant activity proven to protect skin stem cells from UV-induced oxidative stress, inhibit inflammation, neutralise free radicals, and reverse the effects of photoageing. Consequently, cosmeceutical products containing extracts derived from plant stem cells have the ability to promote healthy cell proliferation and protect against UV-induced cellular damage in humans14.

Product penetration

Asking about a product’s delivery system is becoming a more common question from clinicians and patients. It is a valid question, although it is more useful to understand when a delivery system is actually necessary to a product’s efficacy. Certain active ingredients, such as retinoids and L-ascorbic acid, are typically more effective if a delivery system is employed. Delivery systems include ingredient encapsulation in polymers or liposomes, and micronisation or formulating with very small ingredient particles. These delivery mechanisms are used to ensure a product’s active ingredients reach the level of the skin where they will provide the most benefit. While delivery systems of this kind certainly have their place within the industry, most skincare products do not need them to be effective.

A product’s vehicle is created by using ingredients from the multifunctional ingredient category, and is most often what assists with product penetration. A vehicle refers to a product’s base, which is an emulsion, a suspension or a gel. Emulsions have a creamy consistency and are formulated to ensure the active ingredient is evenly distributed throughout the product; they combine water-soluble and oil-soluble ingredients, leading to penetration into both the aqueous and lipid environments of the skin. In some cases, thick creams can impede active ingredient penetration, as travelling through the product’s base itself requires a significant amount of a molecule’s energy. For this reason, emulsions are typically better suited for moisturisers, versus corrective topicals.

Suspensions are usually in liquid form and separation of a suspension’s ingredients is typical. Agitating the bottle is necessary to redistribute the ingredients throughout the product, ensuring the key ingredients penetrate into the skin properly. Suspensions are used when a product’s ingredients will not dissolve when mixed with oil or water. Often, cleansers will be suspensions.

A gel base is commonly used in serum products. Gels are transparent semi-liquids that are either completely water-soluble or completely oil-soluble. Gels are thinner and typically penetrate easier than emulsions, making them the more common vehicle for corrective products.

Ensuring stability

Stability pertains to three important aspects of a product: chemical breakdown of its key ingredients, physical stability of the product, and the prevention of abnormal microbial growth. Some think of preservatives as a negative; in fact, preservatives protect the product and the consumer by preventing the growth of harmful bacteria, yeast, and mold. In actuality, all products that contain water must have some type of preservative system in place. Certain multifunctional ingredients offer preservative properties as well as other benefits, allowing for misleading ‘preservative-free’ claims.

If a product breaks down, or oxidises, it loses efficacy. Oxidation involves the altering of an ingredient’s molecule. In some cases, this alteration is beneficial. For example, the conversion of retinol into retinoic acid in the skin involves oxidation of the retinol molecule. This type of oxidation must be assisted by certain enzymes and occur within the skin, not in the bottle, in order to make it effective. Oxidation is negative when a product oxidises before it is able to interact with the skin. The most obvious indication of product oxidation is darkening in colour over time. Many of the most effective topical ingredients, including retinoids, L-ascorbic acid and a number of sunscreen agents, are inherently unstable and prone to oxidation. Oxidation typically occurs when a fragile ingredient comes in contact with an oxygenating agent in the presence of air, water or light. Special steps must be taken to ensure products that contain unstable ingredients are able to maintain their stability and functionality.

Esterfication is a process that involves the binding of one molecule to another. Ester molecules can be effective, but the skin must be able to break apart the ester and free the actual active ingredient. One example is the esterfication of peptides with fatty acids in order to make them lipophilic, thus enabling them to penetrate through the stratum corneum to reach the epidermis and dermis. Another example is ascorbyl palmitate, which combines L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) with palmitic acid. While this seems like a logical way to stabilise the active L-ascorbic acid, the skin lacks the mechanism to free it; therefore, these esters do not provide all of the ingredient’s topical benefits.

Encapsulation is a protective casing that shields the active ingredient from contact with air, water or light. This method of stabilisation is widely considered the most effective, as the ingredient is still in its most active form. The casings are easily broken upon manipulation or contact with skin, thereby releasing the active ingredient.

Synergistic activity, or formulating with complementary ingredients that are able to protect one another from breakdown, enhances a formulation’s stability. The most common form of synergistic activity is the use of L-ascorbic acid with vitamin E. When formulated together, these ingredients replenish each other’s activity15.

Choosing the appropriate components when creating skin care formulations is an important job for the chemist. Creating efficacious topical products for the clinician to provide to their patients is a rewarding part of the cosmetic chemist’s job. Though it can be difficult for the clinician and patient alike to determine which is best among all of the product options available, understanding select fundamentals of cosmetic chemistry can help significantly. Trusting the science behind skin care is much more useful than listening to marketing messages, which are often over-blown. When well-formulated, the skincare topicals of today are capable of producing excellent, visible results.

Ivana Veljkovic

Research and Development Manager, PCA SKIN®,

Member of the American Chemical Society